Quantitative measurement of sleep quality using cardiopulmonary coupling analysis: a retrospective comparison of individuals with and without primary insomnia.
Schramm PJ, Thomas R, Feige B, Spiegelhalder K, Riemann D.
Sleep Breath. 2013 May;17(2):713-21.
To determine the utility of a new operator-independent, automated measure of sleep physiology based on cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis in subjects with primary insomnia vs. good sleepers.
CPC variables showed a significant multivariate analysis of variance group, night, and group × night main effect, except for HFC by night. Relative to good sleepers, primary insomnia patients on adaptation night had lower HFC, a putative biomarker of stable sleep, and HFC/LFC ratio, an indicator of sleep quality. The primary insomnia group also had higher LFC, an index of unstable sleep, and an increase in VLFC and e-LFC compared to good sleepers on adaptation night. On baseline night, the primary insomnia group had increased LFC, VLFC, and e-LFC and a lower HFC/LFC ratio. Except for HFC, good sleepers had larger CPC variable differences between adaptation and baseline nights compared to the primary insomnia group.
Primary insomnia subjects have a marked worsening of sleep quality on the adaptation night, which is well captured by both conventional and ECG-derived sleep spectrogram techniques. The larger improvement of sleep quality was found among good sleepers and captured only by CPC analysis. The operator-independent, automated measure of sleep physiology demonstrated functionality to differentiate and objectively quantify sleep quality.