Electrophysiological Characteristics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Insomnia: Polysomnography and Cardiopulmonary Coupling Analysis

Authors:
Hea Ree Park, Eun Yeon Joo, Seung Bong Hong

Reference:
J Sleep Med 2015;12(2):53-58

Objectives:
To characterize sleep of subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) with insomnia compared to OSA without insomnia in terms of polysomnography (PSG) and cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis.

Conclusions:
OSA-I demonstrated more fragmented sleep architecture and disruptive sleep in spite of lower sleep-disordered breathing related distress than OSA-O. CPC analysis is unable to differentiate sleep patterns of OSA subjects with or without insomnia. It is needed to explore factors causing fragmented sleep architecture and disruptive sleep rather than respiratory disturbances in OSA subjects complaining of insomnia.

Practical Significance:

Subjects with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥5 /h, n=200) were enrolled and divided into subjects OSA with insomnia (OSA-I) and subjects with OSA only (OSA-O). OSA-I complained of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep at an initial interview in clinic. We compared demographics including mood states, daytime sleepiness, PSG, and CPC parameters between groups, and performed correlation analyses between PSG and CPC parameters for each group.

Female ratio was higher in OSA-I than OSA-O. OSA-I were older and slimmer than OSA-O. OSA-O were much drowsier (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.0 vs. 6.8). However, mood states were not different between two groups. OSA-I showed significantly longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency than OSA-O. Despite of higher arousal index (AI) and AHI of OSA-O, wakefulness after sleep onset was greater in OSA-I. There was no significant difference of CPC parameters between two groups after adjustment of AHI. In correlation analyses, low frequency coupling and high frequency coupling duration were associated with AHI, AI, and lowest SaO2 in both groups.

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Insomnia symptoms in primary care: A prospective study focusing on prevalence of undiagnosed co-morbid sleep disordered breathing

Authors:
H. Hilmisson, E. Sveinsdottir, N Lange, S. Magnusdottir

Reference:
European Journal of Internal Medicine , Volume 0 , Issue 0 ,

Objectives:
To determine prevalence of comorbid undiagnosed sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in chronic insomnia patients, using two complementary methods, one standard and one novel.

Conclusions:
High prevalence and overlap in symptoms between insomnia and SDB warrants objective testing when evaluating sleep complaints before therapy is initiated. Diagnostic caution is even more importantly warranted for female patients presenting insomnia sleep complaints, as SDB may not be initially considered as a biological symptom driver. CPC-analysis can complement standard HSAT or serve as a standalone option to evaluate sleep complaints in individuals presenting insomnia symptoms before therapy is initiated.

Practical Significance:
Using prospective design, adult patients diagnosed with chronic insomnia, treated with prescription pharmacological agents for >3 months without prior objective sleep evaluation or diagnosis of SDB were invited to participate. All patients recorded their sleep for two consecutive nights using level 3 home-sleep-apnea-test (HSAT) device to derive Respiratory Event Index (REI) for OSA diagnosis. The electrocardiogram-signal (ECG) recorded by the same device was analyzed using FDA cleared medical software, Cardiopulmonary Coupling (CPC) to quantify sleep time and identify sleep-quality and pathology.

Of 110 chronic insomnia patients who volunteered between May 2017 and June 2018, 88% were women. Prevalence of moderate-severe SDB (REI > 15) was 25% based on REI-scoring. Surrogate markers of moderate-severe SDB detected by the novel method identified prevalence of 33%, with negative predictive value 96%, reclassifying 10 individuals that HSAT diagnosed with mild SDB with more advanced disease state. Agreement between the methods is 88%.

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Quantitative measurement of sleep quality using cardiopulmonary coupling analysis: a retrospective comparison of individuals with and without primary insomnia.

Authors:
Schramm PJ, Thomas R, Feige B, Spiegelhalder K, Riemann D.

Reference:
Sleep Breath. 2013 May;17(2):713-21.

Objectives:
To determine the utility of a new operator-independent, automated measure of sleep physiology based on cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) analysis in subjects with primary insomnia vs. good sleepers.

Conclusions:
CPC variables showed a significant multivariate analysis of variance group, night, and group × night main effect, except for HFC by night. Relative to good sleepers, primary insomnia patients on adaptation night had lower HFC, a putative biomarker of stable sleep, and HFC/LFC ratio, an indicator of sleep quality. The primary insomnia group also had higher LFC, an index of unstable sleep, and an increase in VLFC and e-LFC compared to good sleepers on adaptation night. On baseline night, the primary insomnia group had increased LFC, VLFC, and e-LFC and a lower HFC/LFC ratio. Except for HFC, good sleepers had larger CPC variable differences between adaptation and baseline nights compared to the primary insomnia group.

Practical Significance:
Primary insomnia subjects have a marked worsening of sleep quality on the adaptation night, which is well captured by both conventional and ECG-derived sleep spectrogram techniques. The larger improvement of sleep quality was found among good sleepers and captured only by CPC analysis. The operator-independent, automated measure of sleep physiology demonstrated functionality to differentiate and objectively quantify sleep quality.

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